Browser detection for iOS / Android devices in a Grails application

If you want to detect the details of browser / platform your Grails application is being used from, there is this plugin called browser-detection. However, it seems like it gets it wrong sometimes. Today was one such day for me that forced me to peek closer at it.

It seems the User-Agent header values that you get from iOS and Android devices have information coming in different formats, as shown below:

  • [1] iOS – Mozilla/5.0 (iPod; U; CPU iPhone OS 4_3_3 like Mac OS X; en-us) AppleWebKit/533.17.9 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/5.0.2 Mobile/8J2 Safari/6533.18.5
  • [2] Android – Android: Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; U; Android 2.3.3; en-gb; GT-I9100 Build/GINGERBREAD) AppleWebKit/533.1 (KHTML, like Gecko) Version/4.0 Mobile Safari/533.1

So, if you want to detect the platform, operating system, lanuguage, etc, beware of parsing the information keeping such a difference in mind, something like:

final boolean parsingForAndroid = userAgent.indexOf("Android") > 0)
// osInfo = detail string inside first parantheses, i.e., for Android - "Linux; U; Android 2.3.3; en-gb; GT-I9100 Build/GINGERBREAD"
if(parsingForAndroid) {
    (operatingSystem, sec, platform, language) = osInfo.split("; ") as List
} else {
    (platform, sec, operatingSystem, language) = osInfo.split("; ") as List

It’s not meant to be an extensive improvement over browser-detection plugin. The idea is just to leave a note that such differences exist when you want to detect platform details across different mobile platforms like iOS / Android.


[1] –
[2] –


Adding a contact on Android device emulator

Here is something that surprised me a few times, when I tried to add contacts on the Android emulator for some tesing.

I would open the Contacts application, it would say that ([1]) there were no existing contacts, and ask me to add new ones using the menu option “New Contact”. I would enter all the details, press “Done”, and nothing would happen! It would simply come back to the previous screen and again repeat [1].

It seems that it was creating the contact alright, but just not displaying it because the relevant configuration was not done. There is another menu option next to “Next Contact”, called “Display Options”. You need to go there and enable the display of the contacts you are interested in under the category “Choose contacts to display”. Phew!

Grails, Geb: Executing multiple functional test phases together

A little trick before 2011 goes to books:

Some time back, we had this need to execute some time consuming functional tests that covered Facebook integration for our Grails application. We decided to go ahead and define a separate test phase and not mix these tests with the usual app-level functional tests to not lengthen our build cycles by much. By not mixing up the functional and facebook phase tests, we had more flexibility on when we wanted to run “facebook” tests, and when we didn’t.

The article “Custom Grails Test Types / Phases” is mostly the approach we took for defining the custom phase. In addition, we had to introduce some work arounds to share some test classes between the two phases – as, by default, Grails uses an isolated classloader for each test phase, and doesn’t provide a mechanism to easily share the “common” classes.

There was another issue though, and this little trick is about that issue.

It seems the embedded Tomcat instance that Grails uses, did not get cleanly shutdown at the end of “functional” phase and then restarted at the beginning of “facebook” phase, if both the test phases got executed together. There was some mix-up related to a thread-pool inside the embedded Tomcat, which caused 2nd startup of Tomcat to see the same pool, which was in the “CLOSING” state. Seeing it in that state, it would decide to abort the startup. Adding some delay also did not reliably help.

The way we finally avoided the problem is by not shutting the tomcat down after “funtional” phase, and not trying to start it in the beginning of “facebook” phase, when both the phases are run together. If only one of these phases is executed, then Tomcat start-up and shutdown happens normally. Here are the relevant code snippets:

def originalFunctionalTestPhaseCleanUp

eventTestPhaseStart = { phase ->
    // record which phase is being run currently
    testPhaseBeingRun = phase
eventAllTestsStart = {
    /* replace the Grails' original functionalTestPhaseCleanUp call so that we can decide for ourselves whether to do it or leave it upto facebook phase */
    originalFunctionalTestPhaseCleanUp = owner.functionalTestPhaseCleanUp
    owner.functionalTestPhaseCleanUp = myFunctionalTestPhaseCleanUp
addFacebookTestPhase = {
    // define our custom 'facebook' phase with Grails, as described in LD's article mentioned above.

// callback made by Grails for phase as "${phase}TestPhaseCleanUp"() 
facebookTestPhasePreparation = {
    // Skip starting the app, if 'functional' phase is also run, as it is already started by functional phase by this point.
    if(testPhaseBeingRun == 'facebook' && !filteredPhases.containsKey('functional')) {

// override the default functionalTestPhaseCleanUp behavior, so that we do the clean-up only once
myFunctionalTestPhaseCleanUp = {
    // Skip shutting down the app if 'facebook' phase is also run. It will be shutdown at the end of facebook phase.
    if(testPhaseBeingRun == 'functional' && !filteredPhases.containsKey('facebook')) {
facebookTestPhaseCleanUp = {
    // finally the usual cleanup that is done after functional phase.

Hope it helps someone having similar needs / issues.

Using Geb based functional tests in a “custom” Grails test phase

Forget it! It’s not supported (at least as of Geb 0.6.0). Just spent my morning investigating it.

I had this need to setup a separate set of functional tests (functional by nature, not in terms of Grails functional test phase packaging) that needed some special external interfaces that were not always available. A “custom” test phase seemed perfect for my needs that would include these tests that would not run as part of ‘> grails test-app’ or ‘> grails test-app functional:’, but would run just when and where I needed them – maybe once a day, after making sure that its external interfaces up – ‘> grails test-app custom:’.

Following Luke Daley’s very helpful article “Custom Grails Test Types / Phases”, I setup a custom test phase and started writing some Geb-Spock plugin based tests, only to find out that Geb is married to the test phase name “functional”. So there doesn’t seem be an opportunity to use Geb in a custom Grails test phase. 😦

Update 1 (23-Nov-11): The following issue has been filed to configure Geb to work with other test phases:

Grails, Cassandra: Giving each test a clean DB to work with

If you are using Grails, you must be used to the ease with which your integration tests do not have to bother about what other tests are doing in the application database. Grails achieves it by starting a new transaction before each test and rolls it back when the test gets over – whether it passes or fails. So, the actual changes made to data are never written to the database and you are happy to have this isolation between tests, as it allows you to focus one each test independently instead of worrying about side-effects.

But what if the database you used did not support transactions? How do you achieve the same isolation then?

For such a database – Cassandra – it can be achieved by cleaning up after each integration test the data from all the Column Families (tables) that the Keyspace (schema) had (Ability to hook into Grails events made it quite easy). Not every test makes too many changes in the database, so it can work out quite OK – obviously, not as fast as Hibernate + RDBMS combo, but acceptable.

The steps I used:

  • Describe the keyspace and find out all the column families in it
  • For each column family you want to clean-up data from:
    • Do range queries on the column family, skipping any phantom records found (Use Pagination, if needed)
    • Collect all valid row keys
    • Do a batched mutation for all the row keys to clean-up the column family data

So, all worked well, but it seemed like too much clean-up work. I looked around and found that Cassandra supported a “truncate” operation, which was sadly missing in Hector API, so I promptly requested for the API gap to be filled. The “truncate” operation was soon made available in Hector API and it cut down our clean-up code from 20-lines of doing range-scans-and-picking-up-keys-to-delete to one-liner “truncate” call.

Over time, the schema grew (more column families, indexes) as well as the application (more integration tests needing more clean-up cycles) and the integration tests that used to finish in seconds started taking many minutes. For some time I doubted that maybe Cassandra upgrades have introduced some new configuration that should be tweaked, but then I measured. To my utmost surprise, it showed that each invocation of the one-liner “truncate” call had started spending 4-5 seconds kind of time in Hector + Cassandra, and in an overall integration tests cycle of 5.5 minutes, 5 minutes were in clean-up and 0.5 in actual tests 🙂

We immediately switched back to olden ways of doing range-scans-and-batch-mutations and here is the difference in overall clean-up time (nearly 75 invocations in the whole integration test phase): 5 minutes vs 0.05 minutes! So, we are happily back to our tests taking 0.55 minute instead of 5.5 minutes!

Please, please do not use Hector + Cassandra’s “truncate” calls frequently to provide your tests a clean DB slate in your Grails / Java applications! Its performance is bad!

Also, sometimes 20 lines of code can be better than a one-liner. 🙂

Better serialization of Groovy objects using XStream

This blog post is to resolve a little disconnect between Groovy and XStream serialization library:

  • Groovy makes use of synthetic members quite a bit, and sometimes it also adds synthetic fields to classes it compiles.
  • XStream skips only static and transient data members (as of the latest version 1.4.1), but not synthetic ones, resulting in a little inconvenience that Groovy’s compiler-provided synthetic members also show up in serialized form.

Here is an example, where we try to serialize a Groovy object into JSON format:

import groovy.transform.Immutable
import com.thoughtworks.xstream.XStream

@Grab(group='com.thoughtworks.xstream', module='xstream', version='1.4.1')
XStream xstream = new XStream(new JsonHierarchicalStreamDriver())

def person = new Person(firstName: 'roshan', lastName: 'dawrani')
println xstream.toXML(person)

class Person {
	String firstName
	String lastName

The above code outputs the following because AST transformation done by compiler for @Immutable adds some extra fields for its internal use, such as “$print$names” and “$hash$code”, and it can be a little confusing or annoying to see these unknown data members mixed up with your regular ones.

{"Person": {
  "firstName": "roshan",
  "lastName": "dawrani",
  "$print$names": true,
  "$hash$code": 0

In the following code, we try to remove the disconnect between Groovy and XStream by introducing a custom converter that enhances the filter applied by XStream on data members and excludes the synthetic ones as well:

import groovy.transform.Immutable

import java.lang.reflect.Field
import java.lang.reflect.Modifier

import com.thoughtworks.xstream.XStream
import com.thoughtworks.xstream.converters.reflection.PureJavaReflectionProvider
import com.thoughtworks.xstream.converters.reflection.ReflectionConverter
import com.thoughtworks.xstream.mapper.Mapper

@Grab(group='com.thoughtworks.xstream', module='xstream', version='1.4.1')
XStream xstream = new XStream(new JsonHierarchicalStreamDriver())
xstream.registerConverter(new GroovyObjectConverter(xstream.mapper))

def person = new Person(firstName: 'roshan', lastName: 'dawrani')
println xstream.toXML(person)

class Person {
    String firstName
    String lastName

class GroovyObjectConverter extends ReflectionConverter {
    GroovyObjectConverter(Mapper mapper) {
        super(mapper, new GroovyObjectReflectionProvider())

    boolean canConvert(Class type) {


class GroovyObjectReflectionProvider extends PureJavaReflectionProvider {
    protected boolean fieldModifiersSupported(Field field) {
        int modifiers = field.getModifiers()
        super.fieldModifiersSupported(field) && !Modifier.isSynthetic(modifiers)

With this technique the output is correctly shown as:

{"Person": {
  "firstName": "roshan",
  "lastName": "dawrani"

Hope the technique is useful to some of you.

Making a Hudson /Jenkins build number available to a Grails application

It’s a quick note on how to make a Hudson / Jenkins build number available to a Grails app.

  • Jenkins / Hudson make the current build number available through the environment variable “BUILD_NUMBER”.
  • Grails exposes at runtime the application meta-data from the file “”
  • Grails fires a pre-WAR-creation event called “CreateWarStart” that can be utilized to make the running Jenkins/Hudson build number available through Grails application level meta-data.

Below is the Grails event handler that connects the dots above when you build your Grails app’s WAR (scripts/_Events.groovy):

eventCreateWarStart = { warName, stagingDir ->
    def buildNumber = System.getenv('BUILD_NUMBER')
    if(buildNumber) {
        ant.propertyfile(file:"${stagingDir}/WEB-INF/classes/") {
            entry(key:'build.number', value: buildNumber)

This build number can be retrieved at run-time using any of the following:

  • In GSP pages
  • <g:meta name="build.number"/>
  • In Groovy code
  • def buildNumber = grailsApplication.metadata['build.number']

You can learn more about hooking into Grails events here.